A Flange is a pipeline fitting constituting a disc or a ring (sometimes a square frame) with holes for bolts.
Flanges are intended for safe and air-tight connection of valves to pipelines, for interconnection of pipes and their parts, their connection to various equipment and other plants and vessels, etc.
According to basic standards, three types of flanges are manufactured in Russia: flat welded steel flange, welded end-to-end steel (collar) flange and slip steel flange on welded ring.
Flat welded flanges are manufactured in accordance with the requirements of GOST 12820-80 and are operated at temperatures varying from -70°С to 450°С.
Collar flanges (welded end-to-end) are manufactured pursuant to GOST 12821-80 and can be operated at temperatures varying from -253°С to 600°С.
Slip steel flanges on welded rings comply with GOST 12822-80. They are characterized by ease of mounting which is why these flanges are used in hard-to-reach places and in case of frequent repairs.
It should also be noted that flat welded and slip flanges withstand pressure up to 25 kgf/cm2, while steel flange welded end-to-end is operated under high pressure - up to 200 kgf/cm2. In the domestic market of pipeline fittings, flanges manufactured according to other standards are also in demand. These are threaded steel flanges, flanges for vessels and plants, and for underwater pipelines.
According to GOST 12815-80, 9 flange variants (designs) differing in form and sizes of mating faces are acceptable.
Flanges of the first design are the most commonly used ones, while others are adapted for operation with valves in various extreme conditions, for instance, under high pressure or in aggressive environments.
To ensure higher air-tightness, surfaces of flanges of different designs are connected in different ways: using a joggle, a pin, a groove or a cavity.
Carbon, alloy and stainless steels are generally used or manufacturing of flanges.
Two types of flanges are distinguished:
- Flat welded steel flanges as per GOST 12821-80
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